Wednesday, March 25, 2020

A Review of Frequently Asked Questions and Answers about the Coronavirus (NY Times)

“AS THE CORONAVIRUS continues to spread across the globe, the news is coming at a fast and furious pace. But don’t let the volume send you into a panic about your health and that of your loved ones. 'The mantra is, ‘Keep calm and carry on,' said Dr. Marguerite Neill, an infectious disease expert at Brown University.

“Here’s a list of frequently asked questions about the coronavirus outbreak and its symptoms.

“What symptoms should I look out for?

“Symptoms of this infection include fever, a dry cough, fatigue and difficulty breathing or shortness of breath. The illness causes lung lesions and pneumonia. Some of these symptoms overlap with those of the flu, making detection difficult, but runny noses and stuffy sinuses are not normally among the first symptoms. Patients may also exhibit gastrointestinal problems or diarrhea. Most people fall ill five to seven days after exposure, but symptoms may appear in as few as two days or as many as 14 days. In some cases, people who had appeared stable rapidly
deteriorated in the second week; anyone infected needs careful monitoring.

“What should I do if I feel sick?

“If you think you’re sick as a result of the novel coronavirus, you can help safeguard your loved ones and community by staying at home, except to get medical care. The current guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that you call a medical professional if you notice symptoms...

“Call your doctor or health professional before you go. That will help him or her prepare for your visit and prevent the spread of the virus to other people in the office. Be sure to wear a mask when you go to the doctor’s office, and when you’re around other people. If you cannot find a mask, you can create a makeshift one from a cloth or T-shirt. The C.D.C. also suggests that you avoid public transportation, ride-sharing services and taxis, and that you separate yourself from other people and animals in your home as soon as possible. That means not letting anyone enter your room and, ideally, not sharing bathrooms. Others should stay more than six feet away from you and avoid any surface you might have coughed on or touched, including doorknobs, plates, cups and towels. Many state health departments have set up hotlines for people who want more information, but long wait times have been reported. Eventually, specific coronavirus testing centers may be set up.

“What if someone in my family gets sick?

“Follow the same steps listed above if you think your children or anyone else in your household may be infected. Both the coronavirus and influenza are most dangerous to people who are over 65 or have chronic illnesses or a weak immune system. Children infected with the new coronavirus tend to have mild or no symptoms, and it is unclear how easily they transmit the disease to teenagers or adults.

“How does this compare with the flu?

“The coronavirus seems to be more deadly than seasonal flu and almost as contagious. Early estimates of the coronavirus death rate from Wuhan, China, the epicenter of the outbreak, have been around 2 percent, while the seasonal flu, on average, kills about 0.1 percent of people who become infected. By contrast, the 1918 flu had an unusually high fatality rate, greater than 2 percent. Because it was so contagious, that flu killed tens of millions of people.

“How does the virus spread?

“The new coronavirus seems to spread very easily, especially in confined spaces like homes, hospitals, churches and cruise ships. It appears to spread through droplets in the air and on surfaces from a cough or sneeze. Whether a surface looks dirty or clean is irrelevant. If an
infected person coughs and a droplet lands on a surface, a person who then touches that surface could pick it up. A study of other coronaviruses found that they remained on metal, glass and plastic for two hours to nine days. But there is good news: The virus is relatively easy to destroy using any simple disinfectant or bleach. [Note]: droplets can sit on the surfaces of latex gloves. Some experts suggest wearing cloth or leather gloves that absorb droplets and are bulky enough to discourage you from touching your face. [Of course, they would need to be disinfected often].

“Will the virus disappear in the summer?

“That is still unknown. This is a new virus, and everyone is believed to be susceptible. Flu transmission decreases in hot weather every year, and the SARS coronavirus emerged in winter and was eliminated by the following June. But SARS was beaten by aggressive containment measures, not by the weather. The four mild coronaviruses that cause common colds still circulate in warm weather and cause ‘summer colds.’ In the 1918 and 2009 flu pandemics, there was a second wave in the fall.

“Is there a cure? What about a vaccine?

“There is no approved antiviral drug for the coronavirus [at this time], though several are being tested. For now, doctors can recommend only the usual remedies for any viral illness: rest, medicine to reduce pain and fever, and fluids to avoid dehydration. Coronavirus patients with pneumonia may also need
oxygen, and a ventilator if breathing trouble worsens. Some patients who appear to be doing well have a ‘crash’ in the second week of their illness. An experimental vaccine for the coronavirus may be ready for testing in humans within a few months. But even if it is approved, it will take much longer, at least a year, before it is available for widespread use. In the meantime, experts are urging people and their children to get a flu shot.

“My partner/friend/parent/child is very worried. How serious is this?

“This virus can be deadly. There’s a reason government officials and medical experts across the world are issuing strong warnings. About 80 percent of victims will recover without any need for hospitalization. [There are] cases categorized as ‘mild,’ included those with ‘mild pneumonia,’ meaning there is fluid in the lungs but not seriously enough to require supplemental oxygen or intensive care. Other categories are ‘severe,’ which means oxygen or ventilation is required, and ‘critical,’ which means lung or organ failure. It is important to keep these distinctions in mind, both to avoid unnecessary panic and to get a clear picture of the likelihood of transmission.
‘Many people are now panicking, and some actually are exaggerating the risks,’ according to Dr. Jin Dong-Yan, a virology expert at the University of Hong Kong.

“OK. Then why are experts so concerned?

“Unlike other, more mild coronaviruses, this one causes many deaths.
It is unclear how many completely symptom-free cases there are because some people test positive a day or two before developing symptoms. The World Health Organization believes that only about 1 percent of cases never develop a fever or any other symptoms.

New York Times 

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