Saturday, May 1, 2021

The hidden dangers of protein powders: They may contain added sugar, calories, or even toxic chemicals (Harvard Health Publishing)

 


Adding protein powder to a glass of milk or a smoothie may seem like a simple way to boost your health. After, all, protein is essential for building and maintaining muscle, bone strength, and numerous body functions. And many older adults don't consume enough protein because of a reduced appetite.

But be careful: a scoop of chocolate or vanilla protein powder can harbor health risks. "I don't recommend using protein powders except in a few instances, and only with supervision," says registered dietitian Kathy McManus, director of the Department of Nutrition at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women's Hospital.

What is protein powder?

Protein powders are powdered forms of protein that come from plants (soybeans, peas, rice, potatoes, or hemp), eggs, or milk (casein or whey protein). The powders may include other ingredients such as added sugars, artificial flavoring, thickeners, vitamins, and minerals. The amount of protein per scoop can vary from 10 to 30 grams. Supplements used for building muscle contain relatively more protein, and supplements used for weight loss contain relatively less.

What are the risks?

There are numerous risks to consider when using a protein powder. Among them:

  • A protein powder is a dietary supplement. The FDA leaves it up to manufacturers to evaluate the safety and labeling of products. So, there's no way to know if a protein powder contains what manufacturers claim.
  • We don't know the long-term effects. "There are limited data on the possible side effects of high protein intake from supplements," McManus says.
  • It may cause digestive distress. "People with dairy allergies or trouble digesting lactose [milk sugar] can experience gastrointestinal discomfort if they use a milk-based protein powder," McManus points out.
  • It may be high in added sugars and calories. Some protein powders have little added sugar, and others have a lot (as much as 23 grams per scoop). Some protein powders wind up turning a glass of milk into a drink with more than 1,200 calories. The risk: weight gain and an unhealthy spike in blood sugar. The American Heart Association recommends a limit of 24 grams of added sugar per day for women and 36 grams for men.

A new risk revealed

Earlier this year, a nonprofit group called the Clean Label Project released a report about toxins in protein powders. Researchers screened 134 products for 130 types of toxins and found that many protein powders contained heavy metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury), bisphenol-A (BPA, which is used to make plastic), pesticides, or other contaminants with links to cancer and other health conditions. Some toxins were present in significant quantities. For example, one protein powder contained 25 times the allowed limit of BPA.

How could protein powder contain so many contaminants? The Clean Label Project points to manufacturing processes or the existence of toxins in soil (absorbed by plants that are made into protein powders).

Not all of the protein powders that were tested contained elevated levels of toxins. You can see the results at the Clean Label Project's website (www.cleanlabelproject.org).

Daily protein goals

Aim for the Recommended Dietary Allowance for protein intake: 46 grams per day for women and 56 grams for men. For example:

  • an egg for breakfast (6 grams)
  • 6 ounces of plain Greek yogurt at lunch (18 grams)
  • a handful of nuts for a snack (4–7 grams)
  • a cup of milk (8 grams) and 2 ounces of cooked chicken for dinner (14 grams).

What you should do

McManus says that in certain cases, chemical-free protein powders may be helpful—but only with medical supervision. Such cases could include

  • difficulty eating or an impaired appetite (as a result of cancer treatment or frailty from older age)
  • a surgical incision or a pressure wound that is not healing well (your body needs protein to repair cells and make new ones)
  • a serious condition requiring additional calories and protein in order for you to get better (such as burns).

Otherwise, get protein from whole foods: nuts, seeds, low-fat dairy products (yogurt, milk, cheese), legumes (beans, lentils), fish, poultry, eggs, and lean meat. "You'll find," McManus says, "that there are many ways to get protein without turning to a powder."

-Harvard Health Publishing


 The Truth about Protein Drinks (Consumer Reports)

If you’re looking to get more protein in your diet, you may have considered adding a protein powder or a protein drink, such as Ensure Max Protein, to your daily routine. It used to be that protein products were marketed only to athletes and bodybuilders, but now they’ve gone much more mainstream. Ads depict regular people who look healthy and vibrant, presumably thanks to the protein drinks they’re sipping.

It’s wise, of course, to make sure you’re getting enough protein each day. Adults need 0.4 gram of protein per pound of body weight per day. If you weigh 150 pounds, that’s 60 grams.

Older adults need more—0.6 gram of protein per pound of body weight per day, or about 90 grams for someone who weighs 150 pounds. It’s needed to help the body heal and help prevent falls. “Protein is especially important in older men and women to maintain existing muscle mass and offset muscle losses [that come] with aging,” says Nancy Rodriguez, Ph.D., R.D., professor of nutritional sciences at the University of Connecticut.

But protein powders and drinks don’t necessarily deserve the “health food” status that so many people attribute to them. “They may seem attractive because of their convenience,” says Lauri Wright, Ph.D., R.D.N., chair of the department of nutrition and dietetics at the University of North Florida in Jacksonville, “but older adults typically can get enough through their normal diet.” There may be special cases where your doctor might recommend you use a protein powder or drink, such as after surgery or if you are ill and aren’t able to eat enough to meet your needs. But in most cases, there are a number of reasons why it makes sense to stick with food rather than these drinks.

Protein Overload

Protein powders have a high concentration of the nutrient—more, in some cases, than even high-­protein foods such as chicken. Depending on the drink and the serving size, you may get more than your body can use effectively—around 25 to 30 grams per meal, according to research from the University of Texas Medical Branch. What’s more, if you have any kidney damage, too much protein over the course of the day can cause waste to build up in your blood. Almost 40 percent of people ages 65 and older have chronic kidney disease, and about 90 percent of them don’t even know they have it, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Ultra-Processed Ingredients

Soy protein, pea protein, whey protein, or other similar ingredients found in protein powders and ready-made smoothies aren’t simply the whole food dried and ground into a powder. Instead, companies extract the protein from the foods in a lab. “You’re left with the protein, but not the other components of the food,” says Charlotte Vallaeys, senior policy analyst for food and nutrition at Consumer Reports.

Many protein products also contain additives like artificial flavors and colorings, says Wright, and sometimes excess sodium and unexpected ingredients like inulin or carrageenan, which could cause digestive upset for some. “The proteins in these products are highly-processed,” says Vallaeys. “There has been a lot of research linking [these products] to heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and other ailments. You’re much better off getting protein from food—eggs, lean meat, poultry, beans, nuts, and dairy—which are naturally packed with vitamins and minerals, and, in some cases, antioxidants.”

Heavy Metal Contamination

A 2018 Study from the nonprofit Clean Label Project of 134 popular protein powders found detectable levels of heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead, and toxins like bisphenol A in nearly all of them. Exposure to these substances has been linked to cancer, brain damage, heart disease, and stroke.

Surprise Sweeteners

Protein powders and drinks can pack more added sugars than you’d expect, which can lead to weight gain and make it harder to manage blood sugar if you have diabetes. For example, vanilla Spiru-Tein Sport protein powder has 13 grams of sugars in two scoops. And a single-serving bottle of Bolthouse Farms Protein Plus Strawberry shake has 26 grams of added sugars—more than what’s in a cup of Breyers strawberry ice cream. Protein products may also contain non-nutritive sweeteners like stevia or sucralose, or sugar alcohols such as erythritol.

Shoddy Regulation

According to the Food and Drug Administration, a protein powder or liquid can be a supplement or a food depending on how the manufacturer markets it. The distinction is important because, as with all supplements, the FDA doesn’t verify that protein supplements contain what they claim to, while foods are subject to more regulation. If it’s clearly a beverage—for example, it’s called a drink or smoothie or the directions say “mix with milk,” it’s probably considered a food. If not, the manufacturer may choose to call it a supplement. “Label accuracy with supplements is entirely reliant on the company,” says Pieter Cohen, M.D., an associate professor at Harvard Medical School and supplement researcher. One way to tell what the manufacturer considers its product to be is to see whether the package has a “Nutrition Facts” panel or a “Supplement Facts” one. 

Make Your Own Protein Drink

If you want a protein drink, opt for homemade—you control what you put into it. Try blending up this Chocolate-Strawberry Smoothie. The recipe makes 4 servings; you can make a batch and keep it in the fridge for up to three days. 

Blend 2 frozen bananas; 1 cup frozen strawberries; 12 oz. soft tofu, drained; 2 cups soy or cow’s milk; ¼ cup tahini; and 2 tablespoons cocoa powder on high until smooth. Add ice to thin as necessary. 

Per serving: 250 calories, 13 g fat, 2 g saturated fat, 24 g carbs, 5 g fiber, 10 g total sugars, 0 g added sugars, 13 g protein, 75 mg sodium

Five Ready-Made Choices

Not in the mood to clean the blender? The refrigerated smoothies and protein drinks you find in the supermarket, such as those by Naked or Odwalla, usually have cleaner ingredients lists than the shelf-stable ones, but many still contain isolated proteins, lots of added sugars, and unwanted additives. So read labels carefully, or you can opt for a yogurt or kefir drink or even Soy Milk, which are natural sources of protein and supply other nutrients.

-Rachel Meltzer Warren


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