Thursday, October 27, 2016

Clinical "Deterioration" Stages of Alzheimer’s (from the Fisher Center for Alzheimer’s Research Foundation)

New York University’s Dr. Barry Reisberg outlines the seven major clinical stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Dr. Reisberg is the Clinical Director of New York University’s Aging and Dementia Research Center. As the principal investigator of studies conducted by the National Institutes of Health, Dr. Reisberg’s work has been pivotal in the development of two of the three current pharmaceutical treatment modalities for Alzheimer’s. He is developed the “Global Deterioration Scale” which is now used in many diagnoses and care settings as the rating scale.

Stage 1: Normal

At any age, persons may potentially be free of objective or subjective symptoms of cognition and functional decline and also free of associated behavioral and mood changes. We call these mentally healthy persons at any age, stage 1 or normal.

Stage 2: Normal aged forgetfulness

Half or more of the population of persons over the age of 65 experience subjective complaints of cognitive and/or functional difficulties. The nature of these subjective complaints is characteristic. Elderly persons with these symptoms believe they can no longer recall names as well as they could 5 or 10 years previously. They also frequently develop the conviction that they can no longer recall where they have placed things as well previously. Subjectively experienced difficulties in concentration and in finding the correct word when speaking are also common.

Various terms have been suggested for this condition, but normal aged forgetfulness is probably the most satisfactory terminology. These symptoms which, by definition, are not notable to intimates or other external observers of the person with normal aged forgetfulness, are generally benign. However, there is some recent evidence that persons with these symptoms do decline at greater rates than similarly aged persons and similarly healthy persons who are free of subjective complaints.

Stage 3: Mild cognitive impairment

Persons at this stage manifest deficits which are subtle but which are noted by persons who are closely associated with the stage 3 subject. The subtle deficits may become manifest in diverse ways. For example, the person with mild cognitive impairment (MCl) may noticeably repeat queries. The capacity to perform executive functions also becomes compromised. 

For persons who are still working, job performance may decline. For those who must master new job skills, decrements in these capacities may become evident. For example, the MCI subject may be unable to master new computer skills. MCI subjects who are not employed, but who plan complex social events such as dinner parties, may manifest declines in their ability to organize such events. Other MCI subjects may manifest concentration deficits. Many persons with these symptoms begin to experience anxiety, which may be overtly evident.

The prognosis for persons with these subtle symptoms of impairment is variable, even when a select subject group who are free of overt medical or psychological conditions which might account for, or contribute to, the impairments are studied. A substantial proportion of these persons will not decline, even when followed over the course of many years. 

However, in a majority of persons with stage 3 symptoms, overt decline will occur and clear symptoms of dementia will become manifest over intervals of approximately 2 to 4 years. In persons who are not called upon to perform complex occupational and/or social tasks, symptoms in this stage may not become evident to family members or friends of the MCI patient. Even when symptoms do become noticeable, MCI subjects are commonly midway or near the end of this stage before concerns result in clinical consultation. Consequently, although progression to the next stage in MCI subjects commonly occurs in 2 to 3 years, the true duration of this stage, when it is a harbinger of subsequently manifest dementia, is approximately 7 years.

Management of persons in this stage includes counseling regarding the desirability of continuing in a complex and demanding occupational role. Sometimes, a "strategic withdrawal" in the form of retirement, may alleviate psychological stress and reduce both subjective and overtly manifest anxiety.

Stage 4: Mild Alzheimer’s disease

The diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease can be made with considerable accuracy in this stage. The most common functioning deficit in these patients is a decreased ability to manage instrumental (complex) activities of daily life. Examples of common deficits include decreased ability to manage finances, decreased ability to prepare meals for guests, and decreased ability to market for oneself and one’s family. The stage 4 patient has difficulty writing the correct date and the correct amount on the check. Consequently, [someone will have] to supervise this activity. The mean duration of this stage is 2 years.

Symptoms of impairment [also] become evident in this stage. For example, seemingly major recent events, such as a recent holiday or a recent visit to a relative, may or may not, be recalled. Similarly, overt mistakes in recalling the day of the week, month, or season of the year may occur. Patients at this stage can still generally recall their correct current address. They can also correctly recall the weather conditions outside and important current events, such as the name of a prominent head of state. 

Despite the overt deficits in cognition, persons at this stage can potentially survive independently in community settings. However, functional capacities become compromised in the performance of instrumental (i.e. complex) activities of daily life. For example, there is a decreased capacity to manage personal finances. For the stage 4 patient who is living independently, this may become evident in the form of difficulties in paying rent and other bills. A spouse may note difficulties in writing the correct date and the correct amount for paying checks. The ability to independently market for food and groceries also becomes compromised in this stage. Persons who previously prepared meals for family members and/or guests begin to manifest decreased performance in these skills. Similarly, the ability to order food from a menu in a restaurant setting begins to become compromised. Frequently, this is manifest in the patient handing the menu to the spouse and saying, "You order."

The dominant mood at this stage is frequently what psychiatrists term a flattening of affect and withdrawal. In other words, the patient often seems less emotionally responsive than previously. This absence of emotional response is probably related to the patient’s denial of [his or her] deficit, which is also notable at this stage. Although the patient is aware of [his or her] deficits, this awareness of decreased intellectual capacity is too painful for most persons; hence the psychological defense mechanism known as denial, whereby the patient seeks to hide their deficit even from themselves where possible, becomes operative. In this context, the flattening of affect occurs because the patient is fearful of revealing [his or her] deficits. Consequently, the patient withdraws from participation in activities such as conversations.

In the absence of complicating medical pathology, the diagnosis of AD can be made with considerable certainty from the beginning of this stage, Studies indicate that the duration of this stage of mild AD is a mean of approximately 2 years.

Stage 5: Moderate Alzheimer’s disease

In this stage, deficits are of sufficient magnitude as to prevent catastrophe-free, independent community survival. The characteristic functional change in this stage is incipient deficits in basic activities of daily life. This is manifest in [an inability] to choose proper clothing to wear for weather conditions and/or for daily circumstances (occasions). Some patients begin to wear the same clothing day after day unless [they are] reminded to change. The spouse or other caregiver begins to counsel regarding the choice of clothing. The mean duration of this stage is 1.5 years.

At this stage, deficits are of sufficient magnitude as to prevent independent, catastrophe-free, community survival. Patients can no longer manage on their own in the community. If they are ostensibly alone in the community then there is generally someone who is assisting in providing adequate and proper food, as well as assuring that the rent and utilities are paid and the patient’s finances are taken care of. For those who are not properly watched and/or supervised, predatory strangers may become a problem. Very common reactions for persons at this stage who are not given adequate support are behavioral problems such as anger and suspicion.

Cognitively, persons at this stage frequently cannot recall major events and aspects of their current lives: [for instance], the name of the current president, the weather conditions of the day, or their correct current address. Characteristically, some of these important aspects of current life are recalled but not others. Also, information is loosely held: for example, patients may recall their correct address on certain occasions but not on other occasions.

Remote memory also suffers to the extent that persons may not recall the names of some of the schools they attended for many years and from which they graduated. Orientation may be compromised to the extent that the correct year may not be recalled. Calculation deficits are of such magnitude that an educated person has difficulty counting backward from 20 by 2s.

Functionally, persons at this stage have incipient difficulties with basic activities of daily life. The characteristic deficit of this type is decreased ability to independently choose proper clothing. This stage lasts approximately 1.5 years. In this stage, deficits are of sufficient magnitude as to prevent catastrophe-free, independent community survival. 

Stage 6: Moderately severe Alzheimer’s disease

At this stage, the ability to perform basic activities of daily life becomes compromised. Functionally, five successive sub-stages are identifiable. Initially, in stage 6, patients, in addition to having lost the ability to choose their clothing without assistance, begin to require assistance in putting on their clothing properly. Unless supervised, patients may put their clothing on backward; they may have difficulty putting their arm in the correct sleeve, or they may dress themselves in the wrong sequence.

In the stage of moderately severe Alzheimer’s disease, the cognitive deficits are of sufficient magnitude as to interfere with the ability to carry out basic activities of daily life. Generally, the earliest such deficit noted in this stage is decreased ability to put on clothing correctly without assistance. The total duration of the stage of moderately severe AD is approximately 2.5 years.

For example, patients may put their street clothes on over their night clothes. At approximately the same point in the evolution of AD, but generally just a little later in the temporal sequence, patients lose the ability to bathe independently without assistance. Characteristically, the earliest and most common deficit in bathing is difficulty adjusting the temperature of the bath water. Initially, once the spouse adjusts the temperature of the bath water, the patient can still potentially bathe independently. 

Subsequently, as this stage evolves, additional deficits in bathing independently as well as in dressing independently occur. In the 6th sub-stage, patients generally develop deficits in other modalities of daily hygiene such as properly brushing their teeth independently. [Patients] require assistance adjusting the temperature of the bath water. 

At approximately the same time as Alzheimer’s patients begin to lose the ability to put on their clothing properly without assistance, but generally just a little bit later in the disease course, patients begin to require assistance in handling the mechanics of bathing. Difficulty adjusting the temperature of the bath water is the classical earliest deficit in bathing capacity in Alzheimer’s disease.

With the further evolution of AD, patients lose the ability to manage independently the mechanics of toileting correctly. Unless supervised, patients may place the toilet tissue in the wrong place. Many patients will forget to flush the toilet properly. As the disease evolves in this stage, patients subsequently become incontinent. Generally, urinary incontinence occurs first, then fecal incontinence occurs. The incontinence can be treated, or even initially prevented entirely in many cases, by frequent toileting. Subsequently, strategies for managing incontinence, including appropriate bedding, absorbent undergarments, etc., become necessary... [Other] strategies to prevent episodes of incontinence include taking the patient to the restroom and supervision of toileting.

In this sixth stage cognitive deficits are generally so severe that persons will display little or no knowledge when queried regarding such major aspects of their current life circumstances as their current address or the weather conditions of the day. In this stage the patient’s cognitive deficits are generally of such magnitude that the patient may at times confuse their wife with their mother or otherwise misidentify or be uncertain of the identity of close family members. At the end of this stage, speech ability overtly breaks down.

Recall of current events is generally deficient to the extent that the patient cannot name the current national head of state or other similarly prominent newsworthy figures. Persons at this sixth stage will most often not be able to recall the names of any of the schools they attended. They may, or may not, recall such basic life events as the names of their parents, their former occupation, and the country in which they were born. They still have some knowledge of their own names; however, patients in this stage begin to confuse their spouse with a deceased parent and otherwise mistake the identity of persons, even close family members, in their own environment. Calculation ability is frequently severely compromised at this stage that even well-educated patients had difficulty counting backward consecutively from 10 by 1s.

Emotional changes generally become most overt and disturbing in this sixth stage of AD. Although these emotional changes may, in part, have a neuro-chemical basis, they are also clearly related to the patient’s psychological reaction to their circumstances. For example, because of their cognitive deficits, patients can no longer channel their energies into productive activities. Consequently, unless appropriate direction is provided, patients begin to fidget, to pace, to move objects around, to place items where they may not belong, or to manifest other forms of purposeless or inappropriate activities. 

Because of the patient’s fear, frustration and shame regarding their circumstances, as well as other factors, patients frequently develop verbal outbursts, and threatening, or even violent, behavior may occur. Because patients can no longer survive independently, they commonly develop a fear of being left alone. Treatment of these and other behavioral and psychological symptoms which occur at this stage, as well as at other stages of AD, involves counseling regarding appropriate activities and the psychological impact of the illness upon the patient, as well as pharmacological interventions.

The mean duration of this sixth stage of AD is approximately 2.3 years. As this stage comes to an end, the patient, who is incontinent and needs assistance with dressing and bathing, begins to manifest overt breakdown in the ability to articulate speech. Stuttering, neologisms, and/or an increased paucity of speech, become manifest.

Stage 7: Severe Alzheimer’s disease

At this stage, AD patients require continuous assistance with basic activities of daily life for survival. Six consecutive functional sub-stages can be identified over the course of this final seventh stage. Early in this stage, speech has become so circumscribed, as to be limited to approximately a half dozen intelligible words or fewer in the course of an intensive contact and attempt at an interview with numerous queries. As this stage progresses, speech becomes even more limited to a single intelligible word. 

Once speech is lost, the ability to ambulate independently (without assistance), is invariably lost. However, ambulatory ability is readily compromised at the end of the sixth stage and in the early portion of the seventh stage by concomitant physical disability, poor care, medication side-effects, or other factors. Conversely, superb care provided in the early seventh stage can postpone the onset of loss of ambulation, potentially for many years. However, under ordinary circumstances, stage 7 has a mean duration of approximately 1 year to approximately 2.5 years...

In patients who remain alive, late stage 7 lasts approximately 1 year, after which patients lose the ability not only to ambulate independently, but also to sit up independently, At this point in the evolution of AD, patients will fall over when seated unless there are arm rests to hold the patient up in the chair...

Patients who survive, subsequently lose the ability to smile. At this sub-stage, only grimacing facial movements are observed in place of smiles, This sub-stage lasts a mean of approximately 1.5 years. It is followed by a final 7 sub-stage, in which AD patients additionally lose the ability to hold up their head independently.

In the latter portion of the final stage of AD, patients become immobile to the extent that they require support to sit up without falling. With the advance of this stage, as stated, patients lose the ability to smile and, ultimately, to hold up their head without assistance, unless their neck becomes contracted and immobile. Patients can survive in this final 7 sub-stage indefinitely; however, most patients succumb during the course of stage 7. With appropriate care and life support, patients can survive in this final sub-stage of AD for a period of years.
With the advent of the seventh stage of AD, certain physical and neurological changes become increasingly evident. One of these changes is physical rigidity. Evident rigidity upon examination of the passive range of motion of major joints, such as the elbow, is present in the great majority of patients throughout the course of the seventh stage.

In many patients, this rigidity appears to be a precursor to the appearance of overt physical deformities in the form of contractures. Contractures are irreversible deformities which prevent the passive or active range of motion of joints. In the early seventh stage, approximately 40% of AD patients manifest these deformities. Later in the seventh stage, in immobile patients, nearly all AD patients manifest contractures in multiple extremities and joints.

Development of joint deformities known as contractures is an increasing problem in the stage 7 Alzheimer’s disease. A contracture is a joint deformity which makes full range of movement of a joint impossible without producing severe pain. Approximately 40% of patients in stage 7 manifest these deformities to the extent that they cannot move a major joint more than half way. In the immobile Alzheimer’s patient, approximately 95% of patients manifest these deformities which are usually present in many joints.

Neurological reflex changes also become evident in the stage 7 AD patient. Particularly notable is the emergence of so-called ‘infantile’, ‘primitive’ or ‘developmental’ reflexes which are present in the infant but which disappear in the toddler. These reflexes, including the grasp reflex, sucking reflex, and the Babinski plantar extensor reflex, generally begin to re-emerge in the latter part of the sixth stage and are usually present in the stage 7 AD patient. Because of the much greater physical size and strength of the AD patient in comparison with an infant, these reflexes can be very strong and can impact both positively and negatively on the care provided to the AD patient. AD patients commonly die during the course of the seventh stage. The mean point of demise is when patients lose the ability to ambulate and to sit up independently.

‘Primitive’ reflexes, also known as ‘infantile’ reflexes or ‘developmental’ reflexes, such as the sucking reflex, are evident in the stage 7 Alzheimer’s patient.

Another infantile reflex seen in the stage 7 Alzheimer’s patient is the Babinski reflex. This abnormal response to stimulation of the sole of the foot is marked by dorsiflexion of the great toe and fanning of the other digits of the foot.

The most frequent proximate cause of death is pneumonia. Aspiration is one common cause of terminal pneumonia. Another common cause of demise in AD is infected decubital ulcerations. AD patients in the seventh stage appear to be more vulnerable to all of the common causes of mortality in the elderly including stroke, heart disease and cancer. Some patients in this final stage appear to succumb to no identifiable condition other than AD.

Monday, October 24, 2016

The Corporatization of Higher Education and the Adjunct Faculty (Sami Siegelbaum)

“… [O]nce Reagan became president in 1981…, government funding of higher education had decreased nearly 50%. So just as demand increased, supply was relegated to the market. 

“In order to maintain the quality of the good they supplied, institutions had to uphold standards of teaching, research, and student acceptance, while also offering the expanding technological, cultural, and social resources increasingly expected of a world-class college or university. This pressure affected both public and private institutions to varying degrees. 

“For example, public universities increasingly sought out-of-state and foreign students who paid significantly higher tuition, effectively abandoning their mandates. Elite non-profit private institutions could afford to protect their value with higher tuition and lower acceptance rates. 

“For-profit institutions expanded exponentially over the past 20 years to absorb the demand the public sector could no longer serve. Across these different kinds of institutions, students were increasingly viewed as customers who were provided a service for their payments. 

“Administrative functions and positions grew as the task of attracting and satisfying students and donors, as well as managing revenues and investments became a central focus of colleges and universities. This has frequently been termed the ‘corporatization’ of higher education but can more specifically be understood as the subsumption of every aspect of the university by capital – the result of a process that had been set in motion after WWII and the recognition of the American university’s socio-economic role.

“A key challenge faced by university administrations was how to offer an expanding number and array of courses to accommodate the growing demand. The tenure structure of higher education was antithetical to the new system because it required a lifetime commitment with salary, health care, and pension responsibilities borne almost exclusively by the institution. 

“Furthermore, the self-governance structure of tenure maintained an essentially craft mode of production of knowledge by establishing its own research and teaching norms, evaluative processes and promotional procedures. As such, tenure [became] analogous to the guild system whereby associations of skilled workers control the practice of their craft. 

“Indeed, the guild framework was at the heart of the emergence of the earliest universities during the medieval period in Europe. However, within the emergent system of mass higher education, tenure at all but the most elite institutions became something akin to the hiring of classically trained chefs to fry burgers and fries at McDonalds. The only way this state of affairs could be sustained was through a dramatic increase in tuition and a compensatory expansion of credit in the form of student loans. Between 1993 and 2013 tuition rose at public institutions by 94% and at private institutions by 74%, while national student debt has surpassed $1.2 trillion.

“Enter the Adjunct: This condition was obviously unsustainable. McDonalds cannot afford to pay top chefs and offer a dollar menu to millions of customers. The same problem beset the university since higher education cannot exist as an expensive luxury good and as a mass-produced commodity. Expanding credit, rather than offsetting this contradiction, fueled a surplus that further drove down the value of the product of higher education (to say nothing of the social consequences of mass debt). Costs at the point of production would have to be minimized even as tuition was raised.

“The solution, almost universally adopted by colleges and universities, was to turn to part-time, temporary teaching contracts rather than offer tenure positions. In 1969 about 80 percent of college faculty were tenured or tenure-track. By 2015, the number was closer to 25 percent. Over 70 percent of courses at nonprofit public and private colleges and universities are today taught by adjuncts.

“Needless to say, adjunct professors are paid a fraction of their full-time counterparts and lack the job security of tenure. Some estimates have calculated an average pay of $2,700 per course for lecturers. About a third of adjunct professors live near or below the federal poverty line. Most adjuncts are hired to teach one course per semester or quarter and are contracted on a term-by-term basis without any possibility of promotion or entry into the tenure stream. Many make their meager living by cobbling together courses from multiple institutions. They generally do not receive health insurance, research or conference travel funding, retirement benefits, office space, summer break, or paid family leave from their employers…

“These workers are expected – both by the institution and the labor market, which have essentially become one and the same – to have the same basic qualifications and offer the same level of instruction as tenured faculty. Yet they are not provided with the support, resources, or job security ensured by the tenure system. 

“Multiple studies have associated the poor working conditions, lack of support and commitment from the institution, and time constraints experienced by non-tenured faculty with diminished student outcomes, including lower rates of retention and graduation…

“It is enough to point out that in order to accommodate the growth of higher education over the past few decades, colleges and universities have increasingly chosen to spend money on things other than faculty; administrative positions and salaries, staff, consultants, new technology, athletic programs and facilities, dorms, other building projects, cultural and recreational resources, have all expanded greatly during this period while tenure-track faculty positions have essentially flat-lined. 

“Many of these increased expenditures are important and necessary for institutions to adapt to increased enrollments and the demands of a more technologically integrated global society, but to imagine that these investments can be made by reducing the value of the educational labor that produces knowledge – i.e. the core product of the institution – is to play a dangerous game. For, like any product on a market, the value of that knowledge is an expression of the labor that produces it…

“Each institution decides how many faculty they will hire and what the compensation will be depending on a myriad of factors such as enrollment numbers, mission statements, endowments, diversity initiatives, spousal appointments, etc. 

[However], with the subsumption of higher education by capital that has occurred since the 1980s, these decisions are increasingly dictated by market pressures. Indeed it can be quite easily argued that teaching produces significant surplus value for the institution, which is absorbed by its highest paid employees or invested in its ever more lavish trappings. As has occurred in other sectors of the economy, the labor protections of academia have been eroded over time through a combination of deregulation, automation, and outsourcing. 

“Instead of union-busting, there has been guild-busting, as the power of organized labor in academia was diminished by turning to low-wage temporary contract workers while online teaching further diminished worker control over the product and lowered the number of instructors needed. Division of labor was increased by separating administrative, research, and pedagogical functions, placing further downward pressure on wages in the most labor-intensive sector.

“Some believe that this overproduction crisis will resolve when fewer students choose to pursue PhDs and/or institutions limit the number of advanced degrees or programs they offer. This, however, ignores the fundamental shift that has occurred by imagining that the craft mode of production can be preserved at a smaller scale within the mass production of the humanities and higher education in general. Furthermore, it offers no solutions to the tens of thousands of PhD students and adjuncts whose exploited labor currently props up the entire system. Adjunct labor, far from posing a problem in the eyes of college and university administrations, is viewed as the solution…

“Therefore, the sole remaining way to… restore the value of the labor which produces it… [is to] push for adjunct and grad student unionization that is spreading across campuses at both public and private institutions. Contingent faculty at many campuses have voted to join larger organizations such as the AFT and SEIU. By resisting the downward pressure on wages and erosion of job security, unionization counteracts the casualization of academic labor responsible for the loss of value of its product. 

“This means that not only must adjunct unions fight for better compensation and working conditions but also for a reinvestment in the humanities by the university: more courses, smaller courses, curricular prioritization, and increased program funding.

“Currently, the divisions in the labor force across institutions, disciplines, and levels of seniority have created impediments to unionization. Furthermore, the tenure-adjunct divide has bifurcated the faculty between the older craft producers and the growing proportion of waged laborers. Tenured faculty, whatever their stated level of solidarity or sympathy for the struggles of the ever-increasing masses of proletarianized academic workers may be, are reluctant to directly intervene or ally with them. One effect of this is a deepening separation between research and teaching at many schools. Unionization must also address and contest this division.

“Finally, unions for academic workers must be willing to withhold the value they produce for institutions of higher education by striking. Only then will the source and magnitude of the crisis become clear...”

Excerpted from “Once More, the Value of the Humanities” by Sami Siegelbaum

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